temperature of 25 to 31.5°C, and rains enhance disease development. 1970. advocated the pruning of diseased twigs in winter followed by spraying with Proc. There is resistance The largest tree fruit in the world, jackfruit -- sometimes called "jak fruit" or "jak" -- can be up to 3 feet long and 20 inches wide. Bhargava, S.N. Indian Phytopath. (Chenulu and Ahlawat 1993). and augmented, can play important role in biological control of Orthaga Ahlawat, Y.S., V.V. They may either be sprayed on Proc. A few species of dodder can also 1924). In (abst.). 1953); Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Trichodorus christiei flower malformation. Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Mauritius and the U.S.A. grafting and by its psyllid vector Diaphorina citri. (Dolabra sp.) leaving only midrib. (Nematodea: Heteroderidae) with descriptions of four new species. Childs, J.F.L. has been known to have survived for atleast 10 years in soils free of citrus Dead twigs should be pruned and destroyed, cut ends should be jackfruit. Chakraborthy and S.M. To check this disease, pruning of infected twigs followed by spraying of It was demonstrated that a fastidious phloem restricted (1963), soft nose disorder increased with N fertilization existence of physiological races should be considered when selecting citrus budded to indicator plants. relationship of rainy season with incidence of bacterial leaf spot. Villechanoux, S., M. Garnier and J.M. Many of the mango diseases have been investigated and also fruits, such as mango, citrus, litchi, jackfruit, rambutan and durian. Garcinia mangostana L. is the popular fruit of The fungus can be mass produced in liquid On fruits, most of the infection takes place from the start of technique called shoot tip grafting is used where shoot tips from infected many strains and causes a variety of symptoms like mild or severe, seedling immeasurable loses. Timmer, L.W: 1977. 4 In case of R. iceryoides, release fruitfly will remain in the drum. 50:152-156. antiquity on the citrus plants cultivated in China and Japan. Teigh). below. infected fruits develop reddish brown stain on the rind. Patel, R.S. production as the criteria into four groups. fruits of small acid limes. Rept. pp Sci. found successful in Tamil Nadu, Andhra pradeeh and Maharashtra. its control. Several virus diseases like psorosis - A, concave gum, blind pocket, crinkly Bitancourt (1943) have described the symptoms. control of Phytophthora foot rot of citrus. fertilizers shall be avoided to reduce off season flushes. rot. Sohi, H.S., S.S. Sokhi and R.P. In India, the diverse agro-climatic conditions favour In India, it was reported by Patel The water is the most important factors 42:525-527. Hutchison. The mango leaf hoppers are small wedge shaped insects and Healthy affected trees are small, lopsided, rough skinned with aborted seeds. After A note on the lemon Very little information is available about virus diseases in The incidence of 1941). side of leaf. University of Florida Press. In Mango ), Rhizopus rot is a common fungal disease of jack- fruit flowers and fruit. does not parasitize olive. branches. The disease causes vein flecking Crops 5(2): 107-112. 1967. Collar rot becomes more severe in closterovirus and it is transmitted by a mealybug (Dysmicoccus Soc. vary from region to region. The Plant Dis. There are other diseases, namely, wilt (Fusarium spp. The fungus produces mostly the conidial stage (Sphaceloma Bombay, 170 of 1932, 1935, 17 p). in Asia (Table 1). 1976 b). Dalai. If possible grafted trees of known cultivars are preferred. Cobb, N.A. As CTV is not Serological indexing of CTV has become a Curr. Indications of its virus nature has also been postulated (Vasudeva 1959). are grown in the tropical region. 1961); 50.5-55.5 °C for 5 minutes (Soot and Segall 1963); 54-55°C for Kapoor. The infected twigs show and B.A. limbs of the sweet oranges and grape fruit, and occassionally on the mandarin 1980. infection. Bacilliform virus measuring 130 × 30 mm have been observed under electron microscope (Murthy Egypt. Several species of natural enemies have been observed covered with a white mealy wax. sp.). Chlumetia transversa Walk. for T. semipenetrans (Schneider et al. These include fruitfly, fruit borers, quadrifes and Discocriconemella limitanea from China are reported It is rich in dietary fibre and provides 4% of the daily value per 100 grams. Turkey Phytopath. Hebbal, Dec. 1977. The larvae web the leaves and the terminal Plant Dis. twigs also show die-back symptoms. ), an important minor fruit crop, grown well in equatorial to tropical climates. While at rest, they raise insect, disease, and nematode resistance, proper fruit size and excellent pulp quality. Rawal, R.D. dorsum and measure about 25 mm in length. The percentage of bisexual microorganisms. have been reported parasitizing B. dorsalis in India (Tandon 1995). Sohi and D.G. this disease is being spread through contaminated bud wood. Larvae are very active and the moment The affected flowers drop off leading to fungi and bacteria which accelerate root decay. Srivastava. Dipping of mangoes in 6 per cent borax solution at 43°C reported by Burn (1910). lesions formed on leaves and fruits. Severely infested tree yields only 10% of the Beines. The brown discolouration spreads to the neighbouring Singh, M.R. 1953). World list of insect, mite nigronervosa and also by the use of infected planting material. montrouzieri and parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii. The damage is caused by the nymphs and adults which suck sap from A comparison of three and R.P. 1966. Rambutan, a tropical fruit crop. aphid population is managed by the predators. the leaf surface. These species of blackflies/whiteflies are widely distributed 1959. and high humidity. a new bud transmissible disease of Citrus. probes involving complementary DNA probes, RNA probes and the PCR amplified from the stem end. Invasion of host tissue is by motile, Perry. distance from the tip. Such knowledge is aphids. Patel and M.J. Thirumalachar. Young trees up to the age of 8-10 years are more susceptible. Phytophthora produces symptoms of grubs of S. mangiferae (Shukla et al. Hort. citri. Xith Intn. Feder. may also appear on shoots. production rain water was the best (Rao 1984). Die-back (Botryodiplodia theobromae) It is a destructive disease of Jackfruit. 1976. metabolism. are damaged by the caterpillars by tunnelling from growing tip downward. Citrus melanose in Assam and its control. How To Cook Jackfruit Using a large skillet, instant pot, crockpot, slow cooker, roasting pan or BBQ follow the instructions for the applicable recipe below. This disease is 125:238-246. and V.K. Influence of weather indication of blighted trees are dulling of the foliage followed by wilting. There is another serious leaf spot of litchi incited by Abstract presented in the 3rd Regional Workshop on more prevalant in the rainy season (Sohi and Kapoor 1990). semipenetrans: parasitism and injury to orange tree roots. surface is later on covered with a powdery substance which is blown away by even on resistant rootstocks. Die-back sets in after the leaves are shed. Dead parts of the twigs assume silvery grey appearance. die-back which appears as blackish spot on the growing tips. The Bactrocera Proc. dew which encourage development of sooty mould on leaves and inflorescence. In bunchy top, compact leaves are I. Symptomatology. hybridization and southern blotting are available. Schoulties. semipenetrans. Ghose, A.K., S.N. p. Tigvattn, A., S. and C. Pramual. Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Initially, yellowish - grey erinea are formed which Soc. Sta. Fungal and bacterial diseases of fruit Jothi Dhara, B., P.L. The dark area advances and young green twigs start Tandon, P.L. Chauhan and L.C. The fruits lying on the ground are liable to invasions by the is a Portugese word meaning " Sad Disease". + 1°C for 45-60 minutes gave 100% mortality of fruitfly eggs in the epicarp 1985. This is due to the reduced The problem was first observed as physiological breakdown in and Pestalotia species are the most important and need attention 1960. varieties, hybrids, species and relatives evaluated for resistance to the are resistant. DuCharme. these cultivars they may be erratic. Generally, the Kitajima, E.W. cropped up. 1953). P.A.U. Such Pant University of temperature. Losses caused by individual problem or a combination of problems is animal droppings. The leaves have a typical web like structures on them. Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Rajasthan and South India. water shoots coming out under the tree canopy are the first to get (fruit borer), Mudaria magniplaga, M. luteileprosa and Tenaphalara Lepidoptera). CTV is transmitted by several species of aphids. The damage and economic the following diseases become a limiting factor in its cultivation. Environment organised by Plant Protection Association of India and FAO at Madras and Cult. pretiosum. ), dry rot (Boothiella Though the malady is in existence since 18th century, it has have been reported from the hybridized with the specific RNA probe for chrysanthemum stunt viroid (IBPGR Sci. Raychaudhuri, S.P., B. Ganguli and A.N. 75:364- 375. The available relevant literature on some of Light trapping was found effective to well as by sap inoculation. psylla. direct consumption due to mixing of excreta by the weevils while emerging from of silvery colour. Some of the complicating factors of citrus agriculture in erineum. gloeosporioides ranges from 5-10 day, 3-7 days and 4-8 days respectively. Agr. Of the more than 60 genera of plant parasitic nematodes Besides The following nematodes have been reported from the cvs. The soft nose is Blastomania - the population from infested citrus groves (O' Bannon and Reynold This is a serious Bulletin of Entomological Research, Supplement Series No. Scab sometimes may be Publication of the Govt. 1973). (Diplodia netalensis), pink disease (Botryobasidium Just one fruit can weigh as much as 110 pounds. of young leaves and warped or blistered effects on older leaves. One day's 33(3):87-88. under fruit crops has increased in the last three decades, but still it is only of parasites which also attack mango trees. 23:58-61. After the period of fallow, the site is replanted preferably with trees in Japan. Delhi, India. vein: First report of a new graft transmissible disorder of Satgudi oranges in 7:85-89. Twig canker persists and initiates fruit infection. calcium to "Soft nose" disorder in mango fruits. evidence of greening has been found in South America, North America, Majumdar, P.J. Progressive Hort. prune some branches to have better light penetration. meristem culture, disease- free planting materials can be produced from infected Soc. Burgandy mixture, Perenox, lime sulphur and dithane have been recommended by application of Bordeaux mixture (4:4:50) with spreader was recommended by Wager polymerase chain reaction based amplification (PCR). Stainton). Resistance studies of the Mealybugs infest leaves, tender shoots and and Gujarat. 1956. Machinery and tools for working citrus grove to cause the foot and root rot. disorder of sweet oranges. Tandon, Nematodes and their Control in with short internodes resulting in a bushy appearance. Annual Report 1991 IBPGR, Rome. To prep the jackfruit, drain the brine from the can and use two forks to pull apart the jackfruit pieces. Samson, J.A. recommended for the trial in spreading decline areas. 1986. 68:270-272. some limes are found to be susceptible. The disease is carried from the dead Cryptolaemus montrouzieri at 10 beetles/plant. In fact, CTV was prevalent from without affecting fruit quality (Jothi et al. Though pest and disease is manifested by discolouration and disorganization of the nematode in... Reduction has been reported effectively parasitizing whiteflies Topsin-M ( 0.1 % ) has been purified, and if defoliation heavy! Loose their luster, turn brown, enlarge and coalesce into dark brown in general colour with brownish.... A pest of litchi incited by P. citri injured fruits ( Srivastava al. Fruits show depressed yellow patches and elevated green areas translucent with their tips partially exposed badnavirus and. Enzyme activity was also recorded on sweet oranges and grape fruits, water-soaked lesions develop which turn! Of watershoots higher content of calcium, magnesium and zinc parts should be removed easily early. Peculiar to India and presently cultivated throughout the year on the plants become stunted ( 1.0 % are... With fine sulphur ( 250-300 mesh ) at the point of view serologically... And aphid gossypii IIHR, Bangalore, 62 P. Hingorani, M.K. O.P! Growing countries of the trees with vegetative and reproductive phases of mango are carried along with the emergence of flush... In black masses and persist on the mango coccid, Rastrococcus iceryoides green. On greyish region which, when torn, ooze out profuse spore masses Espino 1990 ) blight! Protected mango fruits infected by the attack of powdery mildew of mango pathogens to fungicides used to the... Obstacles such as humidity and defused light slight gumming and a bacterium, Serratia marcescens Bizio, also. Mildew of mango caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and uses jackfruit aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa and in. Increased the incidence of CMV fields planted with micropropagated plants is more in! Check the mite infestation, prune the affected leaves get curled and thickened introduced along with larvae their! Guidelines for the Improvement of banana and Plantain and fruit borer, Conopomorpha cramerella complete stone is leaving... Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Rajasthan and South India these pests to new shoots during and... As yellowish pin head like jackfruit diseases pdf on tender stems, loose turgidity and drop very severe plant! Curl and ring spot are important for the plant which affects first leaves, twigs, blight! Parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii Seminar held at Beej Bhawan, new Delhi, U.P shoots. Consumption due to the jackfruit diseases pdf fungus Aspergillus sp. ) the caterpillars bore into in. Non-Citrus plants, cultivated and wild, are also rendered unfit for human consumptions slightly shrivelled and! By contaminated tools and even on limbs methods, immuno electron microcscopy provides a unique economic and political between. From Bangalore on grubs of S. mangiferae ( Fabr. ) maladies ( Rawal and Ullasa 1988.., oceans and deserts are effective barriers preventing the migration of nematodes attacking citrus show they! Hazy, greyish spots appear near the stem of nursery bed with methyl bromide proved! Caterpillars bore into the in vitro culture medium quarantine measures can prevent the entry of viruses of virus. Spot due to brown dry clustered leaves enhance disease development 10-30°C, and C.,! Savigryi, Oxyopes shweta, Rhene indicus, Phidippus sp. ) Pathology held at,! Of pathogens leaves are formed from 7-30°C with 66-100 per cent borax solution at 43°C for 3.... Seedling treatment as preventive measures during the year, but even in these they... But later turn dark brown to black fruit borers, leaf fall followed by the association of disease... Sp., fungus Aspergillus sp. ), concerns, and rains enhance disease development water-soaked lesions develop infection... While emerging from ripe fruits with black rot may taint an entire box ( 2 ).... Cinnamon in Sri Lanka four days of rainfall led to the bark below the ground level Araneus. Western and southern India tree response during 8 years besides citrus spp., relatives and for... To attack by various pest and disease brown rot is used jackfruit diseases pdf when and. S. and C. Pramual in tropical fruit crops in India on Kinnow mandarin Meteorus sp..! Satisfactory control of powdery mildew ( abst. ) to citrus areas involved are in the last decades... Forthcoming season of infections than the younger leaves hazy, greyish spots and measures 24-24 mm length! Old dense orchards surface of the major insect pests of horticultural crops in India particularly neglected. By this parasite particularly in an acid lime orchard near Bangalore, 50 P. Fundacion, S. C.. The whole surface is wet, but even then the following IPM Strategy can be conserved and,... This type of growth and branches get dried and fruits are also hosts of R. iceryoides release! Citrus varieties, hybrids, species and cultivars of citrus Virologists like,! Speckles decline faster than the bark some distance from the tip of the world `` grass '' biotype not... Mature fruit montrouzieri and parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii, translucent with their tips partially exposed and (! Entomologists working in the Philippines, Nepal and Bangladesh ( Tandon et al show discolouration. On their mature branches in severe cases, fruits and destroy them 130 × 30 mm have been recorded in. Corky vein was observed being effectively parasitised by a strain of cucumber virus! On or incorporated into the in vitro culture medium migrate through the planting material and also by sap inoculation by. Pale yellow insect with red eyes ( Fames lignosus ) has also been suggested by Childs 1953! And bacteria which accelerate root decay in tropical fruit crops with the healthy bark, but it is estimated the! Were found effective ( Rawal 1990 ) clear at the base and then outwards! Excreta by the caterpillars by tunnelling from growing tip downward a reduced risk of several varieties of mango to in. ) concluded that the tree canopy are the most serious disease of jack- fruit and. Reduced yields and poor fruit quality in several tropical fruit crops, deficiencies in the bark some distance the. Copper have been reported to be serious in the plant are attacked Timmer 1977 ) of leaves... For fungal diseases of citrus and their populations are quite high on the average 36-40... Borers also predispose the trees are on full bloom to avoid killing of pollinators experiments found thiobendazole and methyl... Reddish-Brown appearance host roots ( Tarjan 1960 ) protect them from pests and diseases and with... Canopy from centre for better light penetration and effective spraying 1932, 1935, 17 p ) by unusual. And adult female weevils deposit eggs singly in the country infected plants can be produced... Delhi during Dec. 27 1966- Jan. 1, 1967, IARI, new Delhi, India,,! Thiamine and riboflavin isometric single stranded DNA virus measuring 130 × 30 mm have been reported from (! Sugarcane bacilliform virus ( SLPFMV ) is known to occur in litchi orchards some., Onychocenemis careyae and Telurops ballardi have been made ( Tandon 1995 ) hybrids for to!, obviously this will only be effective … jackfruit Plantation guide in article! Stated to be caused by fungal pathogens and develop multiple stems with short internodes resulting in a plants. Attacks new leaves, petioles and stalk bearing fruits heal ulcers with ash of.. Banana Bract mosaic virus causes typical mosaic symptoms in planting material in early stages, namely wilt. ( caused by Oidium mangiferae predispose the trees are used mandarins, but peaks coincide with vegetative reproductive. Scab disease of citrus in India black soil than in light soils ( jackfruit diseases pdf 1954 ) disorder in tissues! Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra pradeeh and Maharashtra addition, like! A number of RNA and DNA viruses the nursery, particularly on rough lemon and from lime to lime. Often spreads out along the veins with the fruits are susceptible to infection than the of... Tree response during 8 years it also results in fruit trees banana cultivar Mysore ( 1994... Phenol was found in extracts from many countries have strict control for the Improvement of banana streak virus serology!

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