In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. Larval description from White and Elson-Harris (1994).Adult Observations to date indicate that it is out-competing the Queensland fruit fly and attacks fruit that this fly rarely attacks making it a far worse pest In 2002 a natural enemy, Fopius arisanus (Sonan), was released and established. Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly); adult. To add to the horror is knowing what to use to get rid of fruit flies fast. It is also invaded and established in New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Pitcairn Islands in the South Pacific (Leblanc et al. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 21(5):114, Bayer RJ, Mabberley DJ, Morton C, Miller CH, Sharma IK, Pfeil BE, Rich S, Hitchcock R, Sykes S, 2009. Biology, natural enemies and control, 3A. Queensland fruit fly Photo: James Niland [], via Wikimedia Commons Fruit flies are a significant threat to horticulture. World Crop Pests 3(B). In: Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region, [ed. [Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific., Drew RAI, 1982. Scutum with anterior supra-alar setae and prescutellar acrostichal setae. There are differences among fruit fly species and further studies are required to determine dispersal distances for individual species. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. It has the potential to spread to many places around the world because of its wide climatic and host range ( Meats 1989b ; Sutherst et al., 2000 ) and a tendency to be carried by human travellers at the larval stage inside infested fruit. In Australia both species attack a similar range of hosts and can even be reared from the same individual specimens of field-collected fruit (Gibbs, 1967). 21:113-128, Waterhouse DF, 1993. In: Area-wide control of insect pests: from research to field implementation [ed. as did the Queensland fruit fly last century. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. A8 with well defined intermediate areas and large sensilla. Proceedings of a BARD Workshop, Israel, March 2000. Citrus (Rutaceae): a review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications. Postharvest Biology and Technology. Male tergite 3 with a pecten (setal comb) on each side. Anal area: lobes well defined, surrounded by 3-5 discontinuous rows of spinules, becoming longer and stouter below anal opening.Puparium Larval identification is difficult, so if time allows, Pests in Tomato Crop I think I have Queensland fruit fly in my tomatoes. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. Pest fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Australia: one species or two? Isolated population of Bactrocera tryoni. Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (=Dacus tryoni (Froggatt)), Diptera: Tephritidae, Queensland fruit-fly. B. tryoni was originally described as Tephritis tryoni by Froggatt in 1897 and two little-used synonyms are attributable to Tryon. A fruit fly could have devastated New Zealand's horticulture industry if it hadn't been discovered at Auckland Airport, Biosecurity NZ says. EPPO Global database. In some places frugivorous birds and rodents can destroy a large percentage of wild fruit that would be otherwise available to fruit flies or may have fruit fly larvae already in them (Drew, 1987). In southeastern fruit-growing regions, microsatellites suggest that some of these outbreaks might derive from genetically differentiated populations overwintering in or near the invaded area. World Crop Pests. Medial longitudinal stripe on T3-5. Control; classical biological control of fruit-infesting Tephritidae, In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. and checked for larvae. Little information is available on the attack time for most fruits but few Bactrocera spp. World Crop Pests. In: Allwood AJ, Drew RAI, eds. Pest fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Australia: one species or two? III.- Fruit flies. Experiments on isolated populations in western New South Wales. Face with a dark spot in each antennal furrow; facial spot large, round to elongate. Pupariation is in the soil under the host plant for about 7 days but may be delayed under cool conditions. Incipient founder populations of Mediterranean and Queensland fruit flies in Australia: the relation of trap catch to infestation radius and models for quarantine radius. Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific. Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a highly polyphagous fruit fly which, in the last 15 years, has invaded (with or without establishment) Africa, Europe and North America. Head: Stomal sensory organs large, rounded, each with 3 sensilla and surrounded by 6 large unserrated preoral lobes; oral ridges with 9-12 rows of deeply serrated, bluntly rounded teeth; 8-12 small, serrated accessory plates; mouthhooks large, heavily sclerotised, without preapical teeth. The biology of dacine fruit flies. Usually about 60-80% length of larva. Size variation in the Queensland fruit fly and its implications. Damage levels can be anything up to 100% of unprotected fruit. (Wharton, 1989). B. tryoni is allopatric from B. aquilonis, from which it only differs morphologically in being darker in colour. The control of tephritid fruit flies is practised in two ways. Provides a range of information on southern bluefin tuna research. New South Wales Department of Agriculture, Sydney, Australia, Gibbs GW, 1967. There are about 4,500 species of tephritid flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). > 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches, Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS). Australian Journal of Entomology, 36(1):45-50, Poona S, 2003. 11-53. Blumea, 49(2/3):481-498, Madge P, Mobbs P, Bailey P, Perepelicia N, 1997., IPPC, 2015. Annual Review of Entomology, 32:115-144, Fletcher BS, 1989. Citrus reunited. (lesser Queensland fruit fly, mango fruit fly), so using a product with cue-lure in your garden is a good start for fruit fly control. Adult flight and the transport of infected fruit are the major means of movement and dispersal to previously uninfected areas. A good example and case study is given by Lloyd et al. 23 (2), 61-72. by Allwood AJ, Drew RAI]. Most of the data given here are from the host catalogue of Hancock et al. ACIAR Proceedings, 76: 68-76., Jessup AJ, Dominiak B, Woods B, Lima CPFde, Tomkins A, Smallridge CJ, 2007. Queensland fruit flies are being eaten in the field by many invertebrate predators. Host fruit (PDF, 894 KB)cannot be transported into the Greater Sunraysia Pest Free Area or across some state borders unless the consignment is accompanied by an industry certification arrangeme… This is a simple physical barrier to oviposition but it has to be applied well before the fruit is attacked., IPPC, 2020. Creeping welts with 2-3 anteriorly directed and 3-8 posteriorly directed rows of spinules. The first "Olympic" sterile insects reared in a high-tech factory in South Australia have been released into the wild to help combat Queensland fruit flies. Pattern on abdomen diffuse to distinct. Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico. Eradication of Pacific fruit fly and Queensland fruit fly commenced in 1999 using male … I. Taxonomy. Several non-indigenous species have been released for biological control of this fruit fly in Australia. Aculeus apex pointed.Egg The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is a significant horticultural pest in Australia, and has also established in other parts of the Pacific. Scutum without a medial vitta. B. tryoni has never been found in Tasmania. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Fruit fly traps are being expanded in the area, including being placed in home gardens with fruit trees and additional traps added to an area extending to 1.5km from where the fly was found. Unfortunately, lack of quarantine barriers meant it soon re-invaded. Mortality due to vertebrate fruit consumption can be very high, as can puparial mortality in the soil, either due to predation or environmental mortality (see White and Elson-Harris, 1994, for brief review). Australian Entomologist. Report of the expert consultation on progress and problems in controlling fruit fly infestation, Bangkok, 1986. by Allwood AJ, Drew RAI]. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 1-97, Drew RAI, 1987. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA), 1986(28):1-18. (2019) found no evidence to support this statement and it has been removed. Reduction in fruit fly (Tephritidae: Dacinae) populations in their endemic rainforest habitat by frugivorous vertebrates. Most released B. tryoni do not disperse far from their point of origin (~45% <100 m; ~95% < 1 km) (Meats and Edgerton, 2008) and this is consistent with the finding that the spread of incipient populations is also limited to ~1 km (Maelzer et al., 2004). The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations, In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA eds. These insect pests can infect a wide variety of fruits and vegetables and destroy them. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. Bulletin of Entomological Research. B. tyroni is native to subtropical coastal Queensland and northern New South Wales. The Queensland fruit fly has been described as one of the biggest threats to New Zealand horticulture. Notopleuron yellow. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 209-219, Foote RH, Blanc FL, Norrbom AL, 1993. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Anepisternal stripe not reaching anterior notopleural seta. Bateman M A, 1982., FAO/IAEA, 2003. Seasonal abundance, distribution, hosts and taxonomic placement of Dipterophagus daci Drew & Allwood (Strepsiptera: Dipterophagidae). More information about modern web browsers can be found at Australian Journal of Zoology, 35(3):283-288, Drew RAI, 1989., IPPC, 2015. Queensland fruit fly. QFF has the potential to infest a wide range of horticultural crops, garden plants, native plants and weeds. I recently waged war on the Fruit Nat. 1: History, world distribution, botany, and varieties [ed. Three Australian tephritid fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni - Q-fly, Bactrocera neohumeralis - NEO, and Bactrocera jarvisi - JAR) are promising models for genetic studies of pest status and invasiveness. Losses caused by fruit flies (Diptera : Tephritidae) in seven Pacific Island countries. 100 (2), 197-206. DOI:10.1017/S0007485309990150. Fifty years of fruit fly eradication in South Australia. In South Australia an effective concentration was found to be strongly phytotoxic due to its high salt content. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Fruit Flies of Economic Significance. A New Zealand view of quarantine security with special reference to fruit flies, In: Vijaysegaran S, Ibrahim AG, eds. Male B. tryoni are collected in very large numbers in cue lure traps, which will also trap B. neohumeralis in slightly lower numbers in most of its range (Osborne et al., 1997). The larvae then hatch and proceed to consume the fruit, causing the fruit to decay and drop prematurely. 2nd edn. Tergite 3 darkened basally and laterally. It can [t be purchased commercially. American Journal of Botany, 96(3):668-685., CABI/EPPO, 1998. Frons - 2 pairs frontal setae; 1 pair orbital setae. By 2009 mean (±SD) F. arisanus parasitism for fruit flies infesting Psidium guajava (common guava), Inocarpus fagifer (Polynesian chestnut) and Terminalia catappa (tropical almond) fruits on Tahiti Island was 64.8 ± 2.0%. B. tryoni has a permanent presence in the eastern Australian states as well as the Northern Territory and the north of Western Australia (Meats, 2006; Cameron et al., 2010). Cell br (narrowed part) with extensive covering of microtrichia., IPPC, 2015. South Australian Research and Development Institute. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. (2010) favours the conclusion that B. tryoni is found in allopatric populations across northern Australia from north Queensland to the northwest coast of Western Australia. I. Temporal variation in abundance. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 3(B):411-424, Baker RT, Cowley JM, 1991. Wing: length 4.8-6.3 mm. Management of Fruit Flies in the Pacific. It may affect the home gardener who grows fruit and vegetables as well as the horticulture industries. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 45(2):169-177, Spinner JE, Cowling AM, Gurr GM, Jessup AJ, Reynolds OL, 2011. Previous arguments about distinguishing B. tryoni from B. aquilonis in northern Australia are well discussed in Morrow et al. The Q-fly and NEO species pair is of particular interest. First International Symposium on Fruit Flies in the Tropics, Kuala Lumpur, 1988. Parasitoid fauna of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni Froggatt (Diptera: Tephritidae) in inland New South Wales, Australia and their potential for use in augmentative biological control. APPPC, 1987. Fletcher (1989b) provides dispersal data for only 11 of 651 species of Bactrocera, many of the case studies lack the necessary numerical data, and the study did not discern between active flight and passive wind-assisted dispersal. 2012). 2012). II. Fauna of fruit flies in the Cook Islands and French Polynesia. The Queensland fruit fly has so far been detected five times in the upper North Island in the past decade. in general can be attacked as larvae either by parasitoids or by vertebrates eating fruit (either on the tree or as fallen fruit). Due to difficulties in verifying the identifications of both parasitoids and (in some cases) the fruit fly hosts, no attempt has been made to catalogue all natural enemy records; see White and Elson-Harris (1994) for major sources. The fruits most likely to be attacked after initial introduction will depend … Bateman et al. europaea (European olive), Passiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower), Passiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla), Passiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower), Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade), Syzygium paniculatum (australian brush-cherry),,,, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. In southeastern fruit-growing regions, microsatellites suggest that some of these outbreaks might derive from genetically differentiated populations overwintering in or near the invaded area. Although cover sprays of entire crops are sometimes used, the use of bait sprays is both more economical and more environmentally acceptable. Adult description derived from computer-generated descriptions from White and Hancock (1997). Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region. 31). What crops are most at risk from the fruit fly? Keith Rankin Analysis – Fixing the 2020 New Zealand House Price… Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). In: The citrus industry, revised 2nd ed., vol. A bait spray consists of a suitable insecticide (e.g. Genetic variations among and within populations of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera; Tephritidae), detected by PCR-RFLP of the mitochondrial control region. In 1989 a special factory was built to produce sterile Queensland fruit flies to fight a large outbreak in Perth. The main way that Queensland fruit fly spreads to new areas is by being carried in infested host fruit and vegetables. PQR database. ACIAR Proceedings Series, 76:21-29, Waddell BC, Jones VM, Petry RJ, Sales F, Paulaud D, Maindonald JH, Laidlaw WG, 2000. Behavioural responses of female Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, to mineral oil deposits. White I M, Elson-Harris M M, 1994. However there are three clear differences between them: humeral callus colour, complete pre-mating isolation based on mating time-of-day, and invasiveness. To date, complete biological control in the classical sense, has never been achieved for any Bactrocera or Dacus spp. In: Trapping and the detection, control, and regulation of Tephritid fruit flies: lures, aarea-wide programs, and trade implications [ed. In southeastern fruit-growing regions, microsatellites suggest that some of these outbreaks might derive from genetically differentiated populations overwintering in or near the invaded area. Fruit producers in South Australia's Riverland region scramble to meet strict product quarantine rules, with a second outbreak of Queensland fruit fly declared in the region inside eight days. [ed. Purea M, Putoa R, Munro E, 1997. We will inevitably see more Queensland fruit flies arrive in New Zealand. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 26:521 pp, Drew RAI, Zalucki MP, Hooper GHS, 1984. Fruit Flies; their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Rome, Italy: FAO. If these are distributed at sufficient density (~ 30m spacing) most males can be annihilated (Bateman, 1982). While Queensland fruit fly (B. tryoni) and the lesser Queensland fruit fly ( B. neohumeralis (Hardy)), both sympatric, are genetically indistinguishable, yet reproductively isolated by time of mating (dusk for the former and day time for the latter), B. aquilonis (May) and B. Consequently, no comprehensive list of parasitoid records is given here; those listed were extracted from Waterhouse (1993) and Wharton and Gilstrap (1983)., Leblanc L, Vueti E T, Drew R A I, Allwood A J, 2012. The effects of male depletion in a semi-isolated population. Scutellum entirely yellow (except for narrow basal band). ACIAR Proceedings, 76:54-56, Quimio GM, Walter GH, 2001. This product can be made cheaply from brewery waste (Umeh and Garcia, 2008). The influence of a shortage of hosts on the specificity of oviposition behaviour in species of Dacus (Diptera, Tephritidae). The botany of citrus and its wild relatives of the orange subfamily. Jump dispersal, such as hitch-hiking in infested fruit in luggage, cargo and vehicles is common. While there is growing awareness about fruit fly, most people are not on the look-out for the distinctively yellow patterned Queensland fruit fly. Josh Byrne. There have also been outbreaks in South Australia and although action to eradicate is taken, cool winters may also account for its lack of establishment. Their Identification and Bionomics. They came in the house in some fruit from the store. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. August 2017, Primefact 1494, third edition . Physiological Entomology, 11(2):133-143, Fitt GP, 1986. Fruit fly fauna in New Caledonia. As more and more farmers are turning to insecticide and pesticide free garden management practices, it is necessary to find a safe solution for the fruit fly problem. Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (=Dacus tryoni (Froggatt)), Diptera: Tephritidae, Queensland fruit-fly. That revised list recorded B. tryoni from 49 families of plants, represented by 234 species. The status of B. melas (Perkins and May) as a distinct species requires further investigation and it was treated as an unconfirmed synonym by White and Hancock (1997).
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